Interim Considerations for Health Departments for SARS-CoV-2 Testing in Homeless Shelters and Encampments
PUBLIC REVIEW of the 6th edition of the WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen
The WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen (originally WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm–cervical mucus interaction) was first published in 1980, in response to a growing need for standardization of procedures for the examination of human semen. The manual was revised four times (Belsey, et al., 1980, World Health Organization, 1987, World Health Organization, 1992, World Health Organization, 1999, World Health Organization, 2010), widely read and translated into a number of languages. Indeed, over the past thirty years, the manual became a recognized standard and used extensively by clinical and research laboratories throughout the world. It is a procedural manual not only for those new to semen analysis, but a reference for all who process and examine semen to define its parameters for clinical practice or clinical and epidemiological research studies.
Over the past ten years many new tests and techniques were validated and made available for clinical and research purposes. Prompted by these considerations, WHO established an Editorial Board (EB) to review all the methods described in the 5th Edition of the Manual, with a view to endorsing, changing, or updating them.Public review
From 16 March up to Friday 9 April 2021COB CET, the draft manual will be up for public review. The review will be guided by an online questionnaire. Participants will be asked questions about, comprehensiveness, clarity, usefulness, consistency, general content, the desired form/design and supporting visual materials, as well as dissemination.
All comments suggesting a change of the content in the text, should be properly/scientifically referenced. Please read the modalities of the review attentively.
All comments will be deliberated upon by the Editorial Board (EB) and may or may not result in changes. The EB will not notify persons personally of the outcomes of the deliberations but might contact survey participants by email for clarifications.
Participation in the survey is not anonymous and comments and suggestions will be made available on request. The results of the survey will only be used for the intended use - the review of the draft of the 6th edition of the WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen.
Thanks in advance for your participation.
Every second person in the world is believed to hold ageist attitudes – leading to poorer physical and mental health and reduced quality of life for older persons, costing societies billions of dollars each year, according to a new United Nations
report on ageism.
The report released today by WHO, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), calls for urgent action to combat ageism and better
measurement and reporting to expose ageism for what it is – an insidious scourge on society.
The response to control the COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled just how widespread ageism is – older and younger people have been stereotyped in public discourse and on social media. In some contexts, age has been used as the sole criterion for access to medical care, lifesaving therapies and for physical isolation.
“As countries seek to recover and rebuild from the pandemic, we cannot let age-based stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination limit opportunities to secure the health, well-being and dignity of people everywhere,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “This report outlines the nature and scale of the problem but also offers solutions in the form of evidence-based interventions to end ageism at all stages.”Findings from the report
Ageism seeps into many institutions and sectors of society including those providing health and social care, in the workplace, media and the legal system. Healthcare rationing based solely on age is widespread. A systematic review in 2020 showed
that in 85 per cent of 149 studies, age determined who received certain medical procedures or treatments.
Both older and younger adults are often disadvantaged in the workplace and access to specialized training and education decline significantly with age. Ageism against younger people manifests across many areas such as employment, health, housing and politics
where younger people’s voices are often denied or dismissed.
“Ageism towards younger and older people is prevalent, unrecognized, unchallenged and has far-reaching consequences for our economies and societies,” said Maria-Francesca Spatolisano, Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and
Inter-Agency Affairs in the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “Together, we can prevent this. Join the movement and combat ageism.”
Ageism has serious and wide-ranging consequences for people’s health and well-being. Among older people, ageism is associated with poorer physical and mental health, increased social isolation and loneliness, greater financial insecurity, decreased
quality of life and premature death. An estimated 6.3 million cases of depression globally are estimated to be attributable to ageism. It intersects and exacerbates other forms of bias and disadvantage including those related to sex, race and
disability leading to a negative impact on people’s health and well-being.
“The pandemic has put into stark relief the vulnerabilities of older people, especially those most marginalized, who often face overlapping discrimination and barriers – because they are poor, live with disabilities, are women living alone, or belong to minority groups,” said Natalia Kanem, Executive Director, United Nations Population Fund. “Let’s make this crisis a turning point in the way we see, treat and respond to older people, so that together we can build the world of health, well-being and dignity for all ages that we all want."
Ageism costs our societies billions of dollars. In the United States of America (USA), a 2020 study showed ageism in the form of negative age stereotypes and self-perceptions led to excess annual costs of US$63 billion for the eight most expensive health
conditions. This amounts to US$1 in every US$7 spent on these conditions for all Americans over the age of 60 for one year (see note to editors).
Estimates in Australia suggest that if 5 per cent more people aged 55 or older were employed, there would be a positive impact of AUD$48 billion on the national economy annually. There are currently limited data and information on the economic costs of
ageism and more research is needed to better understand its economic impact, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
“Ageism harms everyone – old and young. But often, it is so widespread and accepted – in our attitudes and in policies, laws and institutions – that we do not even recognize its detrimental effect on our dignity and rights said
Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. “We need to fight ageism head-on, as a deep-rooted human rights violation.”
The report notes that policies and laws that address ageism, educational activities that enhance empathy and dispel misconceptions, and intergenerational activities that reduce prejudice all help decrease ageism.
All countries and stakeholders are encouraged to use evidence-based strategies, improve data collection and research and work together to build a movement to change how we think, feel and act towards age and ageing, and to advance progress on the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing.
The Global report on ageism compiles the best evidence on the scale, the impact and the determinants of ageism, effective strategies to tackle the problem and recommendations for action to create a world fit for all ages. The report is directed at policymakers, practitioners, researchers, development agencies and members of the private sector and civil society.
- Ageism arises when age is used to categorize and divide people in ways that lead to harm, disadvantage, and injustice. It can take many forms including prejudicial attitudes, discriminatory acts, and institutional policies and practices that perpetuate stereotypical beliefs.
- Prevalence figures based on a survey of 83 034 people in 57 countries found one in every two people held moderately or highly ageist attitudes (i.e. stereotypes and prejudice). More information: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/9/3159.
- Excess costs of health care: Ageism influences health through three pathways: psychological, behavioural and physiological. Psychologically, negative age stereotypes can exacerbate stress; behaviourally, negative self-perceptions of ageing predict
worse health behaviour, such as noncompliance with prescribed medications; physiologically, negative age stereotypes predict detrimental brain changes decades later, including the accumulation of plaques and tangles and reduction in the size of
In the USA, ageism led to excess costs of US$63 billion for a broad range of health conditions during one year. This amounts to US$1 of every US$7 spent on the eight most expensive health conditions for all Americans over the age of 60 during one year. The excess health care spending due to ageism was derived from the following: (a) number of Americans aged 60 years or older in 2013; (b) prevalence of interpersonal and self-directed ageism based on percentage of people that agree to the following statements: “You are treated with less courtesy or respect than other people”, “Forgetfulness is a natural occurrence just from growing old” and “The older I get the more useless I feel.” (c) evidence of the impact of such ageist statements on the eight health conditions; (d) prevalence of the eight health conditions in 2013, the most recent year for which health care spending was available; and (e) Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) costs per person of the eight health conditions in 2013. More information: https://academic.oup.com/gerontologist/article/60/1/174/5166947.
To watch the launch event on Thursday, 18 March from 13.00 – 14.00 CET, please register here.
The World Health Organization (WHO) provides global leadership in public health within the United Nations system. Founded in 1948, WHO works with 194 Member States, across six regions and from more than 150 offices, to promote health, keep the world safe and serve the vulnerable. Our goal for 2019-2023 is to ensure that a billion more people have universal health coverage, to protect a billion more people from health emergencies, and provide a further billion people with better health and wellbeing. For more information about WHO, visit www.who.int. Follow WHO on Twitter and Facebook.
The Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights is the leading UN entity on human rights. We represent the world's commitment to the promotion and protection of the full range of human rights and freedoms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To fulfil its mission, UN Human Rights follows a robust framework of results known as the OHCHR Management Plan (OMP). This roadmap is based on the outcomes of consultations with Member States, the UN system, civil society, the donor community and the private sector.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), rooted in the United Nations Charter and guided by the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, upholds the development pillar of the United Nations. UN DESA brings the global community together to work towards common solutions to the world’s most pressing problems. The Department helps countries translate their global commitments into national action in the economic, social and environmental spheres. It is a leading analytical voice for promoting inclusion, reducing inequalities and eradicating poverty, and a champion for tearing down the barriers that keep people in poverty.
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency. Our mission is to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person's potential is fulfilled. UNFPA calls for the realization of reproductive rights for all and supports access to a wide range of sexual and reproductive health services – including voluntary family planning, maternal health care and comprehensive sexuality education.