Feed aggregator

CDC's Diagnostic Multiplex Assay for Flu <em>and</em> COVID-19 and Supplies

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Tue, 07/13/2021 - 07:00
CDC's multiplex assay simultaneously detects influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Long-Term Effects of COVID-19

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Mon, 07/12/2021 - 07:00
Heart conditions associated with COVID-19 include inflammation and damage to the heart muscle itself, known as myocarditis, or inflammation of the covering of the heart, known as pericarditis.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

UN report: Pandemic year marked by spike in world hunger

WHO news - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 11:28

There was a dramatic worsening of world hunger in 2020, the United Nations said today – much of it likely related to the fallout of COVID-19. While the pandemic’s impact has yet to be fully mapped, a multi-agency report estimates that around a tenth of the global population – up to 811 million people – were undernourished last year. The number suggests it will take a tremendous effort for the world to honour its pledge to end hunger by 2030.  

This year’s edition ofThe State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World is the first global assessment of its kind in the pandemic era. The report is jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

Previous editions had already put the world on notice that the food security of millions – many children among them – was at stake. “Unfortunately, the pandemic continues to expose weaknesses in our food systems, which threaten the lives and livelihoods of people around the world,” the heads of the five UN agencies write in this year’s Foreword.

They go on to warn of a “critical juncture,” even as they pin fresh hopes on increased diplomatic momentum. “This year offers a unique opportunity for advancing food security and nutrition through transforming food systems with the upcoming UN Food Systems Summit, the Nutrition for Growth Summit and the COP26 on climate change.” “The outcome of these events,” the five add, “will go on to shape the […] second half of the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition” – a global policy commitment yet to hit its stride.

The numbers in detail

Already in the mid-2010s, hunger had started creeping upwards, dashing hopes of irreversible decline. Disturbingly, in 2020 hunger shot up in both absolute and proportional terms, outpacing population growth: some 9.9 percent of all people are estimated to have been undernourished last year, up from 8.4 percent in 2019.

More than half of all undernourished people (418 million) live in Asia; more than a third (282 million) in Africa; and a smaller proportion (60 million) in Latin America and the Caribbean. But the sharpest rise in hunger was in Africa, where the estimated prevalence of undernourishment – at 21 percent of the population – is more than double that of any other region.

On other measurements too, the year 2020 was sombre. Overall, more than 2.3 billion people (or 30 percent of the global population) lacked year-round access to adequate food: this indicator – known as the prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity – leapt in one year as much in as the preceding five combined. Gender inequality deepened: for every 10 food-insecure men, there were 11 food-insecure women in 2020 (up from 10.6 in 2019).

Malnutrition persisted in all its forms, with children paying a high price: in 2020, over 149 million under-fives are estimated to have been stunted, or too short for their age; more than 45 million – wasted, or too thin for their height; and nearly 39 million – overweight. A full three-billion adults and children remained locked out of healthy diets, largely due to excessive costs. Nearly a third of women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. Globally, despite progress in some areas – more infants, for example, are being fed exclusively on breast milk – the world is not on track to achieve targets for any nutrition indicators by 2030.

Other hunger and malnutrition drivers

In many parts of the world, the pandemic has triggered brutal recessions and jeopardized access to food. Yet even before the pandemic, hunger was spreading; progress on malnutrition lagged. This was all the more so in nations affected by conflict, climate extremes or other economic downturns, or battling high inequality – all of which the report identifies as major drivers of food insecurity, which in turn interact.

On current trends, The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World estimates that Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger by 2030) will be missed by a margin of nearly 660 million people. Of these 660 million, some 30 million may be linked to the pandemic’s lasting effects.

What can (still) be done

As outlined in last year’s report, transforming food systems is essential to achieve food security, improve nutrition and put healthy diets within reach of all. This year’s edition goes further to outline six “transformation pathways”. These, the authors say, rely on a “coherent set of policy and investment portfolios” to counteract the hunger and malnutrition drivers.

Depending on the particular driver (or combination of drivers) confronting each country, the report urges policymakers to:

  • Integrate humanitarian, development and peacebuilding policies in conflict areas – for example, through social protection measures to prevent families from selling meagre assets in exchange for food;
  • Scale up climate resilience across food systems – for example, by offering smallholder farmers wide access to climate risk insurance and forecast-based financing;
  • Strengthen the resilience of the most vulnerable to economic adversity – for example, through in-kind or cash support programmes to lessen the impact of pandemic-style shocks or food price volatility;
  • Intervene along supply chains to lower the cost of nutritious foods – for example, by encouraging the planting of biofortified crops or making it easier for fruit and vegetable growers to access markets;
  • Tackle poverty and structural inequalities – for example, by boosting food value chains in poor communities through technology transfers and certification programmes;
  • Strengthen food environments and changing consumer behaviour – for example, by eliminating industrial trans fats and reducing the salt and sugar content in the food supply, or protecting children from the negative impact of food marketing.

The report also calls for an “enabling environment of governance mechanisms and institutions” to make transformation possible. It enjoins policymakers to consult widely; to empower women and youth; and to expand the availability of data and new technologies. Above all, the authors urge, the world must act now – or watch the drivers of hunger and malnutrition recur with growing intensity in coming years, long after the shock of the pandemic has passed.

 

Read the full report here and the In-Brief report here.

 

GLOSSARY

Hunger: an uncomfortable or painful sensation caused by insufficient energy from diet. Food deprivation; not eating enough calories. Used here interchangeably with (chronic) undernourishment. Measured by the prevalence of undernourishment (PoU).

Moderate food insecurity: a state of uncertainty about the ability to get food; a risk of skipping meals or seeing food run out; being forced to compromise on the nutritional quality and/or quantity of food consumed.

Severe food insecurity: running out of food; experienced hunger; at the most extreme, having to go without food for a day or more.

Malnutrition: the condition associated with deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in the consumption of macro- and/or micronutrients. For example, undernutrition and obesity are both forms of malnutrition. Child stunting or wasting are both indicators for undernutrition.

Schools and Childcare Programs

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
Schools & Childcare: Guidance for School Settings
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Travel: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
Frequently Asked Questions regarding travel during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Guidance for COVID-19 Prevention in Kindergarten (K)-12 Schools

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
Guidance for COVID-19 Prevention in Kindergarten (K)-12 Schools
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Science Brief: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in K-12 schools

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
COVID-19 transmission in schools is associated with community transmission. Transmission spread within schools can be limited with strict implementation of layered mitigation strategies.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Science Briefs

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
CDC is learning more about how COVID-19 spreads and affects people and communities. Learn more by viewing scientific briefs and agendas.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Community, Work, and School

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
Preventing COVID-19 spread in schools, workplaces, and communities.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

COVID-19 Guidance for Operating Early Care and Education/Child Care Programs

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Fri, 07/09/2021 - 07:00
COVID-19 Guidance for Operating Early Care and Education/Child Care Programs
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in transmission – second update

ECDC - News - Thu, 07/08/2021 - 15:00
ECDC has published 'COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in transmission – second update', which revises our current understanding of the role that children play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the role of schools in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Categories: C.D.C. (Europe)

COVID-19 in Newly Resettled Refugee Populations

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Thu, 07/08/2021 - 07:00
Refugees to the United States, especially those who are recently resettled, may be in living or working conditions that put them at higher risk of getting COVID-19.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Program: Vaccine Channel Portfolio by Jurisdiction

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Thu, 07/08/2021 - 07:00
This report provides an overview of the multiple channels being used to ensure all Americans have access to COVID-19 vaccine. Jurisdictional delivery and administration portfolios vary across the United States because of population variability.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Customizable COVID-19 Vaccination Content for Health Departments and Other Public Health Partners

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Thu, 07/08/2021 - 07:00
Customizable COVID-19 Vaccination Content for Health Departments and Other Public Health Partners
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

New study by WHO Europe and ECDC examines variations in antibiotic consumption in European countries between 2014 and 2018

ECDC - News - Wed, 07/07/2021 - 15:00
A new study by the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe (WHO Europe) and ECDC examines variations in antibiotic consumption in European countries between 2014 and 2018.
Categories: C.D.C. (Europe)

COVID-19 Vaccines for Long-Term Care Facility Residents

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Wed, 07/07/2021 - 07:00
Vaccinating LTCF residents will save lives. Making sure LTCF residents can receive COVID-19 vaccination as soon as vaccines are available will help save the lives of those who are most at risk of dying from COVID-19. According to ACIP's recommendations, long-term care facility residents include adults who reside in facilities that provide a range of services, including medical and personal care, to persons who are unable to live independently. The communal nature of LTCFs and the population served (generally older adults often with underlying medical conditions) puts facility residents at increased risk of infection and severe illness from COVID-19
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

Mitigation measures for COVID-19 in households and markets in non-US low-resource settings

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Wed, 07/07/2021 - 07:00
High-density urban areas, including global big cities, may face challenges implementing COVID-19 mitigation measures due to space limitations within and between households and limited water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure. This document offers suggestions for community mitigation measures in densely populated, international, low-resource settings.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

COVID-19 Published Science and Research

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Wed, 07/07/2021 - 07:00
CDC is learning more about how COVID-19 spreads and affects people and communities. Read more about what we're finding out in our CDC publications, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

COVID-19 Forecasts: Cases

2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC) - Wed, 07/07/2021 - 07:00
Learn about COVID-19 forecasts and modeling for new cases.
Categories: C.D.C. (U.S.)

WHO recommends life-saving interleukin-6 receptor blockers for COVID-19 and urges producers to join efforts to rapidly increase access

WHO news - Tue, 07/06/2021 - 22:28

The World Health Organization (WHO) has updated its patient care guidelines to include interleukin-6 receptor blockers, a class of medicines that are lifesaving in patients who are severely or critically ill with COVID-19, especially when administered alongside corticosteroids. 

These were the findings from a prospective and a living network meta-analysis initiated by WHO, the largest such analysis on the drugs to date. Data from over 10 000 patients enrolled in 27 clinical trials were considered. 

These are the first drugs found to be effective against COVID-19 since corticosteroids were recommended by WHO in September 2020. 

Patients severely or critically ill with COVID-19 often suffer from an overreaction of the immune system, which can be very harmful to the patient’s health. Interleukin-6 blocking drugs – tocilizumab and sarilumab – act to suppress this overreaction.  

The prospective and living network meta-analyses showed that in severely or critically ill patients, administering these drugs reduce the odds of death by 13%, compared to standard care. This means that there will be 15 fewer deaths per thousand patients, and as many as 28 fewer deaths for every thousand critically ill patients. The odds of mechanical ventilation among severe and critical patients are reduced by 28%, compared with standard care. This translates to 23 fewer patients out of a thousand needing mechanical ventilation. 

Clinical trial investigators in 28 countries shared data with WHO, including pre-publication data. Researchers worldwide compiled and analyzed the data. With the support of these critical partnerships, WHO has been able to issue a rapid and trustworthy recommendation for the use of interleukin-6 receptor blockers in severe and critical COVID-19 patients.

“These drugs offer hope for patients and families who are suffering from the devastating impact of severe and critical COVID-19. But IL-6 receptor blockers remain inaccessible and unaffordable for the majority of the world,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

“The inequitable distribution of vaccines means that people in low- and middle-income countries are most susceptible to severe forms of COVID-19. So, the greatest need for these drugs is in countries that currently have the least access. We must urgently change this.” 

To increase access and affordability of these life-saving products, WHO calls on manufacturers to reduce prices and make supplies available to low- and middle-income countries, especially where COVID-19 is surging. 

WHO also encourages companies to agree to transparent, non-exclusive voluntary licensing agreements using the C-TAP platform and the Medicines Patent Pool, or to waive exclusivity rights.

In addition, WHO has launched an expression of interest for prequalification of manufacturers of interleukin-6 receptor blockers. Prequalification of innovator and biosimilar products aims to expand the availability of quality-assured products and to increase access through market competition and reduce prices to meet urgent public health needs.

Pages

Subscribe to Brain Association Iasi aggregator